Why Some People Can't Eat Oats - Bob's Red Mill Blog
Why Some People Can't Eat Even the Purest of Oats

Why Some People Can’t Eat Even the Purest of Oats

Bob’s Red Mill prides ourselves on our vast array of gluten free oat products. We have oats rolled, cut, and mixed in every way our celiac and/or gluten-intolerant hearts desire! You may have seen my post about the difference between celiac disease, gluten intolerance, and wheat allergies earlier this month. Today I  bring to you the second installment of Food Challenges 101: Why some people can’t eat oats, even when they are tested and confirmed gluten free.

Let’s back up and explain a little bit about gluten free oats in general. Oats do not inherently contain gluten. The reason they are often included in the list of grains that people on a gluten free diet should avoid is because oats have historically been grown with or around gluten-containing grains. Farmers might rotate crops with wheat one year and oats the next, for instance, so the field of oats could have stray wheat grow that was planted the year prior. The oats may then be stored in a gluten-containing silo, transported in a cross-contaminated truck, or cleaned and processed in a facility where gluten-containing grains are also produced. The oats that would have otherwise been gluten free are now contaminated with gluten.

When oats are handled with care to avoid cross contamination, sorted to remove impurities, and tested (and confirmed!) for absence of gluten, gluten free folks can feel confident about enjoying a nice, creamy, warm bowl of oatmeal . . .

GF Oatmeal // Bob's Red Mill

. . . unless they can’t. There are a handful of gluten intolerant folks (myself included!) who can’t eat even the purest of oats. Why not? It’s not about gluten, but rather about the molecular composition of oats themselves. Oats contain a protein called avenin, to which some people are intolerant or even allergic. Now you’re asking, “What’s the difference between being intolerant and allergic?”

The way the immune system responds to the protein of foods determine whether the person is allergic, intolerant, or neither. Our bodies create antibodies, which are proteins that act as the body’s army in the war on foreign materials. When the body spots an intruder (such as a virus,) the commander (our brains) releases the troops (antibodies) to attach themselves to the intruder, rendering them ineffective. That’s how your body stay well despite being exposed to germs. The "intruder" in the case of oat allergies is the protein avenin.

Some people’s bodies are really particular about what is seen as an intruder. As a defense, a person with a food intolerance or food allergy will make an antibody to the protein of a food. That particular food protein is called the antigen. It's the site on the molecule with which the antibody interacts.  Immunogloblin, written “Ig” in shorthand, is another name for antibody, and there are five different types in humans. IgE and IgG are the two types that are of particular interest in intolerances and allergies. IgE binds not only to the antigen, but also to mast cells, which then release histamine, which sends a cascade of allergic responses in varying degrees of severity from runny nose to anaphylaxis. IgG signals the body to a slower, more prolonged chronic response rather than IgE’s more acute and immediate response.  IgG responses might include inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, and more.

Ultimately, whether a person has celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, or neither, doesn't tell the full story of how they will process oats. Folks with or without gluten intolerance may have IgG or IgE antibodies that react to oat proteins, causing either acute or chronic symptoms of digestive disapproval.

We can be sure our gluten free oats are just that, but we can't be sure if oats are an approved part of your diet. For that, we encourage you to talk to your doctor. When you're ready to give gluten free oats a try, step right this way. If you find out that you, like me, cannot eat oats, we have plenty of other delicious and wholesome gluten free and oat free whole grain hot cereals, like Corn Grits, Brown Rice Farina, and Mighty Tasty Hot Cereal. We even have an oat free muesli, just for you! Well, and me too. Almost all of our gluten free baking mixes are also without oats, just be sure to check the label.

62 Comments

  1. Katie
    I have taken the antibody test and while I test fine for oats, I test very high for gluten and gliadin. While I see that the Bob's Red Mill oats are gluten free, do you know if they contain gliadin? Some sights state that oats do contain gliadin. Any information is appreciated.
    Reply
    1. Cassidy Stockton
      Katie,

      Yes, oats do contain gliadin. In oats, this protein is equivalent to gluten. Some people can tolerate gliadin and some cannot, but it is not the same as gluten.
      Reply
  2. Louise Willett
    it is good to know that Bobs oats are indeed gluten free. As an isbser i am on the lookout for better food choices
    Reply
  3. Louise Willett
    good to know it is gluteinfree
    Reply
  4. Virginia
    How about pointing out that many with diabetes do not (cannot) eat oats and gluten has absolutely nothing to do with it? Oats are oats to me. Grains are grains to me. Drives me nuts when well meaning persons say "but it's gluten free!" Aargh. However, it is true that if you have T1d, you have an autoimmune caused disease, and are also more susceptible to celiac too.
    Reply
  5. Jeena
    I am new to this whole gf thing, however, I am sooo grateful I can still tolerate oats! I am really suffering without good bread. I would surely give up if I couldn't have my morning bowl of oatmeal. I am really glad to see Bobs has other hot morning cereals for those who need it. I am in the process of ordering just about all the gf flours you have in order to come up with some decent tasting, nutritionally superior breads. Living off what is available in the stores is about the same as eating white rice forever--YUCK!! So glad you are here for all the people like me. Thanks!!
    Reply
  6. Martha Foster
    Do Bob's Red Mill gluten-free oats contain glyphosate, the ingredient in Monsanto's weed killer found in Roundup and used on many crops? It has been found in some oat products.
    Reply
    1. Cassidy Stockton
      We have a whole post about oats and glyphosate. Please read it here: http://www.bobsredmill.com/blog/healthy-living/bobs-red-mill-oats-glyphosate/
      Reply
  7. Heather
    Your article almost brought me to tears. I have celiac disease and for years have desperately tried to mend my diet to help relieve my continued gastrointestinal distress, but would end up with frequent days of dispair. After several elimination phases, I finally came to terms with the fact that oats (gf or not) are the source of my misery. I am so thankful to know that I am not alone and that there are ingredients out there that will do no harm.
    Reply
  8. Joe
    Hi Lindsey. Thank you for the article! I write this to you while being awake for hours during the night with a terrible stomach ache. It's hard to swallow the fact something that was so benign growing up is no longer tolerated. I did an elimination diet years ago and I felt better when not eating oats. So I haven't really had much since. I had some last night with out issue so I had more tonight and bam, feels like I ate large rocks. Then I recalled how 25 years ago , the same thing happened, twice when eating very large bowls of raw oats with milk after extreme workouts. I thought it was the milk and maybe it was. I was sick for hours and hours the same way I am now. Tonight I did a 7 mile ride. Maybe a coincidence on the exercise, maybe, but not on the diet. I also ate a very large portion of quinoa for lunch, first time ever. Combination of overeating hard to digest stuff? Probably! I had two chicken sandwiches, mashed potatoes and a scoop of some hard to tolerate corn, and a protein drink, and of course oatmeal. Thanks to your article I don't feel crazy condemning the innocent looking oatmeal. BTW, I am a 52 year old guy with a great metabolism.
    Reply
  9. Andrea Stewart
    Thanks Lindsay, your article on the chemistry of oats has enlightened me so much. I have lots of intolerances, oats being one of many. I thought I would try gluten free porridge thinking I would be fine. The days l took it the pain, bloatedness & trapped wind was so painful & uncomfortable. My tummy feels like a brick has set in it & nothing moves. Reading your article makes so much sense. It's also reassuring to know I am not the only one who cannot eat oats amongst other things. I have a blood test next week so hopefully this test for these antibodies will be checked! Thankyou so much for the best article I have read to date. I will also try the cereals you have listed. Many thanks.
    Reply
  10. Cole wilkinson
    Cole wilkinson
    I think you jave a misconception. The brain does not release antibodies. Antibodies are made from white blood cells in lymph nodes. Antibodies are released from lymph nodes not the brain.
    Reply
    1. Sarena Shasteen
      Hi Cole, thank you for the comment. I believe what Lindsey was trying to convey is that the brain tells your body what to do, not that the antibodies come from the brain. We appreciate your input!
      Reply
  11. Christine Adametz
    Christine Adametz
    Thank you for this article. I not only have suffered from the bloating and GI issues, but also oral allergy syndrome (which to me is almost worse - having your mouth inflamed is miserable!), and apparently oats are the culprit. No where else gave me a great answer - you did! Thank you!
    Reply
  12. Lana
    I have been suffering with digestive issues for several years and my doctor kept on saying that I have acid reflux but I saw no improvement when giving up acid reflux triggering foods or even using some anti acid medication. Recently I did a food sensitivity test and among other foods, I came sensitive to oats. I was a bit surprised that oats even came up on test because I haven't had anything with oats for several months. Now I am in process of figuring out what foods contain hidden oats. Found some articles with chicken being fed oats and traces of that can trigger an effect. Anyone else is experiencing discomfort after excluding oats but not seeing improvement?
    Reply
    1. Dena Berquist
      I am sensitive to oats myself. I find that I cannot use any product whatsoever that has even oat fiber in it (seems to be a common ingredient in processed foods and also in cosmetics, shampoo, etc.) I get itchy and rashy whenever I use a product with any part of oats in it. If I ingest food with oat or oat parts (bran, fiber, germ, etc.) I have digestive distress and get extremely sleepy, as though I have taken a sleeping pill. It is a strange sensitivity. All I can say is read the labels of everything. Also, look up hydrolyzed oat protein, hydrolyzed oat flour, hydrolyzed oats, avena sativa (oat) starch. All these items have been used in cosmetics.
      Reply
  13. Julie Fenn
    I remember reading somewhere that a researcher learned that there were two types of oats, and that gluten reactors will have a response to one variety and not the other. Unfortunately, the article did not identify the oat cultivars by name, so I was unable to find out more. Have you heard anything about this?
    I am non-celiac gluten intolerant, and get rheumatoid knots to swell up on my fingers just a day or so after eating oats.
    (Eating wheat and barley causes my submandibular salivary glands to harden within minutes of an exposure, and within a few days triggers Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Autoimmune Adrenal damage.)

    My allergy list just keeps growing. I would love to be able to eat oats, again. Please let me know if you have heard of an oat cultivar that does not trigger a reaction.
    Reply
  14. Ellen G
    My husband has oatmeal almost every day. I used to eat it too, but at a certain ppint, it started giving me lots of gas and abdominal pain, bloating etc so I had to stop. I can still hVe a little granol or a granola bar now and then, but too much is not good. I tested negative for oat allergy, so I consider it as an intolerance...which is too bad, it lowered mu cholesterol by 30-40 points! Doggone.....
    Reply
  15. Katie
    Maybe this is a little off-topic, but the author seems highly informed on this subject so I thought I'd ask. I just received my results from a food sensitivity hair test which noted that I am sensitive to gluten AND oats. I'm looking forward to the challenge of an elimination diet to confirm this. However, a big question I can't find the answer to... my favorite skin lotion is Aveeno, which lists Avena Sativa Kernel Flour as an ingredient. If I am avoiding eating oats, should I also be avoiding rubbing it all over my body? I
    DO have eczema, which I see can be caused by eating gluten when you're sensitive, but perhaps I'm exacerbating my eczema by directing applying an allergen to it. Furthermore, could I have caused this sensitivity by using this oat-based lotion long-term? Thanks for any information!
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Katie, we would recommend that you take your questions to either your nutritionist or dermatologist. Every one is different, including their sensitivity levels and what sort of reaction is caused by potential allergens.
      Reply
  16. Annie briggs
    What a long haul it's been to discovering it's been oats all along. It's a staple I'm going to miss. but...
    Reply
    1. rebecca
      I just found out I am highly sensitive to oats too. I eat oats just about every day. I make oat "flour" and use in place of bread crumbs and in other baking ALL THE TIME, especially for my kids foods and snacks. Oats are my go-to. I am very sad to have to eliminate it, but it could very well be the thing that's contributed to some symptoms I suffer from.

      I wonder, might the test be swayed by the fact that I have a lot of that food/protein circulating in my body (since I eat so much of it)?
      Reply
  17. Keith Randell
    Omg
    I thought I was imagining what happens to me when I eat gluten free oats. I won't go into details as it's not pleasant.
    Thank you for this article, makes me feel I'm not alone.
    Keith
    Reply
  18. Holly
    I discovered years ago (by accidental process of elimination) that I cannot tolerate eating oats. My reactions are much like the celiac’s reactions to gluten. In fact, when I first read about Celiac’s Disease, I was sure I had that. However, I tested negative, and wheat really doesn’t bother me. For a very long time, I thought I could manage my condition — you know, “I’ll be OK if I eat just one oatmeal cookie once in a while.” Eventually I had to stop fooling myself. Even a teeny bit of oat bran at the bottom of an ingredient list will trigger my GI symptoms. I’m just glad to know I’m not alone. Most people I’ve mentioned it to think I’m crazy or making it up!
    Reply
  19. Donna Pearman
    I will not eat any pure oatmeal again. Twice after eating oatmeal in a health food store I felt I
    was going to faint. I went completely white in color. I did not have this again after giving up oatmeal
    It has a high natural fat that might be the problem. I don't even care for the taste-you have to drown it
    with cinnamon-not worth it if you are to faint
    Reply
  20. Linda moors
    It seems that every time I eat Quaker oatmeal I develop a rash around the mouth area, around the nostrils and along the facial folds. Could I be allergic? I never have before. I am 74 years old.
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Linda, we'd recommend you speak with your doctor about this.
      Reply
  21. Amy
    Do you know why somebody might have reactions to oat bran, but not to oat meal (rolled oats)? Do you know what oat bran would have in it that rolled oats do not? I have been having acute reactions to oat bran lately. I’m not having acute reactions to rolled oats, but I have noticed I’ve been having a great deal of fatigue lately. I started eating both in the past couple of months after not having eaten either for a few years. Im wondering if I should stop eating just the oat bran, or also the rolled oats. So I’m wondering if oat bran has something in it I’m reacting to that oatmeal doesn’t have, or if perhaps the reaction to oat meal is more subtle and long term.
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Amy! That would be a question better suited for your doctor or nutritionist. Rolled Oats themselves contain the bran, so that's odd you'd have a reaction to bran but not the rolled oat.
      Reply
    2. Reese
      Hi Amy, I am having the exact same issue regarding gf oat bran and gf rolled oats. The reaction isn't terrible (itchy hands, some fatigue). But I switched lately since one kidney stone was found & was told oats are high in oxalates but not so with oat bran?! Interesting. Anyways, I am dairy intolerant so eating foods without adequate calcium (citrate best if supplementing) is my issue along with not drinking enough. I def. have issues with gluten.
      Reply
  22. Shannon
    Thank you so much for info! I am trying hard to figure out what I can and cannot eat. I need something to fill me up. Im going to try the oat free products.
    Reply
  23. Adam j.
    Thanks for article . What is the difference between a ' grain ' intolerance and' gluten ' intolerance . My system has generally improved hugely since seeing I am not ' coeliac ' but gluten intolerant . I have felt better not eating ' gluten ' free pasta . No gluten but contains ' maize ' - and therefore part of my ' grains ' intolerance - if through elimination - I definately discover I have that . What is your definition of ' grains ' and might you list them , please ? .....I might just be suffering from ' cross contamination ' of oats as written above as feel I might be allergic to that .... Maybe other remaining aspects of my diet containing intolerances ....hopefully I will find them eventually . All a bit of a confusing ' maze ' .
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Whitney Barnes
      Hi Adam, the term "grain" can refer to any dried, hard seed and encompasses both that are gluten free and not gluten free. Gluten is a protein found in only some types of grain, mainly wheat, barley, and rye.

      If you have a gluten intolerance you would avoid anything containing wheat, barley or rye.

      If you have a grain intolerance (not common) you would avoid all types of grain - wheat, barley and rye but also gluten free grains like sorghum, millet, rice, and corn.
      Reply
  24. Jane
    Oh thank you for this information re: other ingredients in oats. I bought one of the GF bags of oatmeal and my stomach blew up like a beach ball and it was horrible. Now it makes sense. Thank you again.
    Reply
  25. Aprille Pappas
    This blog is well organized and helpful. As the author of an oatmeal cookbook I hear from people about gluten allergy concerns and my responses are in line with the ones you provide here. Information about the foods we eat is paramount to good living!
    Reply
  26. Nancy Wood
    So has anyone here found a good substitute for rolled oats in homemade protein (or granola) bars?
    I tend to develop food intolerances, so I make batches of 5 different kinds of protein bars - all with different ingredients in order to have 5 days worth of snacks to rotate.
    The only ingredient all 5 recipes have in common is rolled oats - I need to substitute SOMEthing else (preferably several different things in different recipes).
    Reply
  27. Judy Norville
    A very interesting article about oats. I just recently had testing for allergies and tested positive for wheat bran, oat bran, and flax, plus mushrooms and eggs (3+). 1+ on alfalfa, bean sprouts, wheat, yeast, along with pecans and pistachios and some flavorings and spices. And very low on corn gluten, millet and oat, additional nuts and spices. What can I eat?
    Reply
  28. Wendy Cunningham
    Thank you for writing this article. I too am unable to tolerate even gluten free oats. I love your Mighty Tasty cereal and was eating that instead, but I now have an intolerance to corn as well. I would love to see you develop another version of a gf multi grain hot cereal with no corn or oats. I love your products!
    Reply
  29. Jennifer Markle
    Thank you so much for explaining this. I've always struggled eating oats, and since going "gluten free" my reaction is 10x worse. For some reason, I can handle eating an oatmeal raisin cookie, but not a bowl of oatmeal. I always buy Bob's Red Mill. Yours is the most trusted brand to get my gluten free foods.
    Reply
  30. Jesse Graves
    Amazing !
    Reply
  31. Mindy Binnie
    Thank you for this article! Our son was just diagnosed with FPIES (Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome). Oats is what he is allergic to. I am glad to see some information about the proteins in the oats as an explanation as to why some cannot eat it. It is a true, life threatening allergy in the gut to oats, but it is that specific protein he cannot eat. He can eat almost all other grains, which we will happily be purchasing from your company knowing how safe they are and how they are produced. Thanks for taking the time to explain this and for your company to be on the forefront of all this research! People with allergies and sensitivities appreciate it!
    Reply
    1. Sarena Shasteen
      Thank you for your kind words and for trusting us with your family's health. We appreciate you!
      Reply
  32. Alli
    Hi!
    I’m fairly certain I’m sensitive to oats. Lots of belly bloating and intense abdominal aching for hours and hours afterward :/ What alternative do you recommend that will offer the same heart health benefits that oatmeal does?
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Alli - although not quite the same, you could try our Organic Cream Buckwheat Hot Cereal, Gluten Free Mighty Tasty Hot Cereal, or Organic Brown Rice Farina.
      Reply
  33. Beth
    If a person is sensitive to oatmeal, would he/she also be sensitive to oat fiber?
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Beth! That question would be best answered by your doctor or nutritionist.
      Reply
  34. Val
    So happy to hear that I am not alone . I've tried and tried to eat oatmeal and I become I'll. Everyone I know eats oatmeal daily for breakfast but I cannot. I really felt inferior. Not anymore.
    Reply
  35. Sue
    Discovering I have an intolerance to oats brought me here. I never used to be intolerant to oats, but in the past year (since I turned 40), every time I eat Oatmeal for breakfast, it feels like I ate a brick. I have gas, abdominal discomfort, cramping, bloating, and I don't find relief till it exits my system. I was in denial I had an Oat intolerance, and while I was doing a 2 week herbal cleanse, I thought I could eat oatmeal for breakfast, I was wrong. It seems that Oats cause havoc in my digestive system, and I am sad I can no longer tolerate Oats. I appreciate everyone's input on this matter, I thought it had to be something else causing my problems as I eliminated dairy & wheat from my diet and still was having issues with bloating, gas, and discomfort after eating oats.
    Reply
  36. Genell
    I have an intolerance for oats (bloating and constipation). I do, however, tolerate coconut and almond flours well. Can either of these be used in recipes in place of oat flour and if so, how do I measure? I've read that coconut flour requires other ingredients and/or different measures which is not a problem but I just can't find the information to allow me to make the correct substitution. I love your products by the way, and thank you for any help you can offer!
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Genell, I would instead suggest starting with recipes that have been formulated using Almond or Coconut Flour. They are both very different from Oat Flour - Almond Flour is higher in fat/moisture while Coconut Flour absorbs much more moisture. You can find recipes for these flours on both their product pages, linked here. Enjoy!

      Bob's Red Mill Almond Flour
      Bob's Red Mill Coconut Flour
      Reply
  37. Martin Vera
    I eat oats and oat bran every day, and I have eaten them for years. A few months ago I began to have headaches. At first I thought they were migraine, then tension. My primary care doctor told me to see a neurologist. He told me it was neither. Then I went to an allergist. After testing me for 80+ environmental allergies, they told me that I did not have any allergies or sensitivities to any of the substances I was tested for. They did day that I may have a food allergy or sensitivity. I was checked for gluten intolerance, but that was negative too. A Doctor of Holistic Medicine suggested that my headaches may be due to a substance called Avenin, a protein found in Oats. Is this possible? Is there a test to confirm or rule out this possibility?
    Reply
  38. Ramesh
    Excellent notes provided here. I live in Australia, and thanks to everyone.
    I do have digestive problems when I consume raw oats, or oats with milk. Surprisingly, I have found no digestive issues if oats (raw or cooked) is taken with yoghurt or buttermilk. I have been doing this for the past 5 years. If someone wants to trial, they should consume small portions, observe reactions and gradually increase to the required intake. I use rolled, wholegrain oats.
    Reply
  39. Lou sandy
    I FEEL TO FAINT WHEN I EAT OATBRAN CRACKERS I ALSO FEEL LIGHTHEADED
    Reply
  40. Linda Campbell
    In reading all the comments, most people have digestive issues. My issues seem to be fatigue, hives and headaches. I only read one other person commenting on headaches. Can eating the rolled oats or avenin be the culprit? What is the blood test to see for sure if I am intolerant to oats?
    Reply
  41. Debby
    I have a weird problem with oats. I've been eating steel cut oats for a couple of years, about three times a week. In this covid atmosphere, they weren't available and we bought regular rolled oats. I had such stomach pains within minutes of finishing my bowl. How could there be that much difference between the two? There aren't added ingredients.
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Debby, rolled oats and steel cut oats are made from the same oat groat, just cut/formed into different shapes. If you have digestive issues, we suggest you seek advice from your doctor or nutritionist.
      Reply
  42. Heather Leigh Brewer
    Heather Leigh Brewer
    I have been diagnosed with MCTD and had the IgG Test. The test says I cannot have oatbran but may have oats. Does that mean I may eat oatmeal? Does oatmeal have oat bran? I also may not have wheat, gluten, wheat bran and rye. Thanks for your help.
    Reply
    1. Whitney Barnes
      Hi Heather - for questions like these, we suggest you seek advice from your doctor or nutritionist.
      Reply
  43. Louise
    Thank you so much for this information! I have non Celiac gluten intolerance and have been gluten free for three years. About six months ago I began having bloating, cramping, and constipation daily. I also get dizzy and sleepy from baked goods. I have been eating oatmeal and oat-based granola, granola bars daily, but I am trailing removing all oats as well as soy, and will be going to a functional nutritionist. I feel better after only a few days of being oat free. Looking forward to trying some of your oat free cereals.
    Reply
  44. Dave
    Thanks for this article, which beats anything else I've found on the Web. My issue is only with oats (gluten no problem), and my issue is it sits in my stomach like a rock, making me constipated and really uncomfortable. For years I've eaten high fiber cereals for breakfast, but the choices have dwindled down and down until for the past year there has been exactly one: Kellogg's Raisin Bran. Yesterday along came the New Improved with Oat Bran! version, so I'm dead meat.
    I have one hope, which is probiotics. I've experimented a bit with adding increasing amounts of toasted oats to the (former) raisin bran and have not had my previous issues.
    So the question is, Anyone else had any experience with probiotics as a solution? If this works, I'll be a very happy camper.
    (Notes: I'm in Yucatan, Mexico. It's HOT here; hot cereals are not a good option.)
    Reply
  45. Remy
    A couple of people have mentioned headaches. I have linked oatmeal consumption to my migraines. I also have concurrent digestive issues with my migraines. I’ll be looking into avenin. Hopefully there is a test, or else I will test it myself through experimentation. Thanks so much for this article. I love your grits and gluten free all purpose flour!
    Reply
  46. Patricia Letke
    Patricia Letke
    Thank you for this article!! I have a lot of food allergies and thought gluten free oats were safe. In light of my new digestive issues, your write up is extremely helpful!!
    Reply

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