Which Whole Wheat?
Healthy Living, Recipes on July 15, 2010 by

Hard Red Wheat vs. Hard White Wheat

Which Whole Wheat?

Which Whole Wheat?

As you might have noticed, here at Bob’s Red Mill we have a huge selection of different types of grains and flours to choose from. One of the questions that we are asked most often here in the bakery is the difference between two specific kinds: Hard Red Wheat and Hard White Wheat. We thought we’d take a minute to give you some information to help you pick out the flour that is best for your baking needs.

The terms “red” and “white” are used to identify the color of the kernel and not of the flour that is eventually milled from those kernels. Hard white wheat was actually originally developed from hard red wheat. The idea was to create a new type of wheat with the same overall nutritional value, but with some different characteristics for baking.

Red wheat has a slightly higher amount of protein which makes it better for more rustic, artisan and generally harder bread loaves. In contrast, hard white wheat’s more moderate level of protein makes for softer loaves such as your typical pan loaves and dinner rolls. In the bakery, we use hard white wheat to create a single-twisted sliced pan loaf which is very soft in texture.

The other major difference between the two types of wheat is in flavor. Red wheat has a certain genetic makeup that gives the bran its darker color, whereas white wheat has been cultivated to be free of these certain genes. By eliminating these genes, the bitter taste sometimes experienced with red wheat is reduced. Health conscious bakers often prefer white wheat because this genetically reduced bitterness requires less additional sweeteners in the final product.

Of course, the best way to discover which flour is the one that you prefer is to test both out for yourself. Here is the recipe that our Quality Control Laboratory uses to test all our batches of flour for consistent quality. They use it to test out all our batches of unbleached white flour, our hard red wheat flour, and our hard white wheat flour. If you try this experiment at home, you will find that just the difference in flours makes for vastly different types of loaves of bread. Our Lab uses a machine that makes consistent 1.5 lb loaves.

Test Loaf Recipe
for a 1.5 lb loaf

1 ½ cups plus 2 tbsp Warm Water (above 80 degrees Fahrenheit)
3 tbsp Canola Oil
3 ¾ cups Flour (Hard Red, Hard White, or Unbleached White)
2 tbsp of Sugar
1 ½ tsp Salt
1 tsp Active Dry Yeast

Add the ingredients to your machine in the order listed above. Start the machine according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Be sure to share the results of your experiments with friends and family!

Different types of wheat berries.

Different types of wheat berries.


G. says:

thank you for the mention on twitter! i LOVE Bob’s Red Mill for my bread making.

deb says:

Bob,we talked about dry ice to store red wheat berries I bought your large plastic storage containers. How do I do it? How much ice and what do you place between the ice and wheat? How long to displace the o2 or deplete the ice? Thanks

TheoC says:

Forgive me, I’m new to this…
So, what is the difference between Hard White Wheat and Unbleached White?

Hard White Wheat Flour is a 100% whole grain whole wheat flour milled from a different version of wheat than conventional whole wheat flour. Typical whole wheat flour is milled from hard red wheat, while the Hard White Whole Wheat Flour is milled from hard white wheat. The hard white wheat gives a lighter color and flavor than hard red wheat. Unbleached White Flour has had the bran and germ stripped away, so it is not whole grain. That is the main difference- one is whole wheat and one is not. Both have about the same amount of protein, but a whole wheat flour will produce a denser, more flavorful baked good. Hope that helps clear things up.

neve says:

is ther red wheat gluten free?

No, all of our wheat contains gluten.

Vicki says:

Oh, nooo… I was so hoping the red wheat was OK. I LOVE the Kashi sweet potato cereal, and I get to eat so little anymore.

However, if white wheat is genetically modified and red wheat isn’t – perhaps I’ll be OK as I have an intolerance to wheat, not just gluten. My problems stem more from the pesticides and chemicals. So organic red wheat might be OK?
*sigh* Guess I’ll find out – I’m eating some of the cereal straight out of the box, lol!
Thanks for your help!

David LaPierre says:

If you were going to put wheat up for long term storage, what would you use, hard red winter, or hard white spring? Thank you, and Merry Christmas!!


Merry Christmas to you too! It really depends on your flavor preference, as both will store well and produce high quality flour if milled. Hard white wheat tends to have a slightly sweeter flavor and may be preferable if you find conventional whole wheat to have a bitter flavor. The main thing to watch for if you’ll be milling the wheat into flour for baking is to be sure to pick a hard wheat and not a soft wheat. Soft wheat will have a lower gluten content and will not work as well for a yeast-risen bread. Hope this helps!

Nadine Anderton says:

It sounds from your description of hard white wheat that it is GMO. Is that true?

Kolkrabe says:

Most, if not all, of the vegetable we farm can be considered GMO. How do you think these things were created in the first place? They started out with the wild plant that was discovered, and have been altered over time for our uses. Tomatoes. Potatoes. Onions. You name it, it was derived from a different type of that species of plant, if not a single wild version altogether. Technically, it is a GMO. However!!! It is NOT a GMO like what we are worried about today. There is not a single GMO wheat on the market, although one was recently discovered to have been planted by Monsanto without consent to have even created it. It under investigation and is hopefully nothing to worry about. 🙂

Whitney says:

Isn’t their a difference between GMO and hybridization?

Yes, there is a big difference between a GMO item and a hybridized item. Hybridization is done through plant breeding, just like those little charts from science class. Two plants that display a desired gene are bred for that gene, the plants that don’t display the gene are discarded and the plants that do display the gene are bred again until all plants display the gene. Genetically modifying an ingredient means to actually get into the dna and fiddle with its genetic makeup.

Peter Clark says:

I bought your hard white wheat 4 pack off amazon thinking I was buying red winter and I am planning to use for wheat grass juice. Will there be any problem using the hard white for wheat grass, will it produce a different tasting product?

I would think it would work the same as the hard red wheat. It may have a slightly sweeter flavor.

Odell says:

This might be off topic, but why would you guys recommend consumers using Canola oil for a test loaf? Canola oil does not occur in nature and is actually a genetic manipulation of rapeseed oil. Also 90% of canola seeds grown are of the Monsanto Round Up ready variety.

Charles says:

Can the wheat berries be planted?

You could conceivably sprout and plant them, but we can’t guarantee that they will grow.

mark says:

I know rye & spelt flour has low gluten and high soluble fiber. How about hard red wheat ? is it also has low gluten and high soluble fiber ? is it healthy than spelt/rye ?


Hard Red Wheat is not low gluten, though it does contain a healthy amount of soluble fiber. I could not say if it is healthier than rye or spelt, but if you are looking for a low gluten option, spelt and rye are good choices.

mark says:

Thanks Cassidy,

which is winner/healthier between whole grain spelt flour and dark rye flour ?

which has high soluble, lowest gluten ?

I know rye has high zinc which is good.


I can’t tell you which is the winner, since I don’t know what the criteria is for the “best” option. Spelt Flour has a protein count of 14-18%, Rye has a protein count around 10%. If you are looking for the least protein, Rye is the best choice for you.

mark says:

Thanks Cassidy, I guess least protein means low gluten as gluten is the protein found in wheat species(spelt/dark rye) ?

Yes, less protein means less gluten.

mark says:

Can you help me out on choosing healthy baking flours(low gluten and high soluble fiber) between these:

1) Light spelt flour(some % of bran, germ removed) – protein level is same as whole grain but doesn’t seems to be any soluble fiber
2) Light rye flour(some % of bran, germ removed) – protein level is same as whole grain but doesn’t seems to be any soluble fiber
3) Whole wheat pastry flour(bran, germ included) – there is no soluble fiber in wheat so this doesn’t as well ?

Isn’t it whole wheat pastry flour is healthy because healthiest part of any wheat family is germ and out of three above only whole wheat pastry flour has this included ?

Of these three, I would say the whole wheat pastry flour is the best choice because it contains all of the health-giving nutrients in a whole grain. I’m just not sure what your trying to find. From this, I’d really say regular whole grain spelt flour is probably your best bet.

karen says:

I recently purchased a 25lb bag of the hard white wheat. Milled it and found that it felt like corn meal. Tried again on the finest grind level and still feels very much different than that of the hard winter wheat when I mill it. Is this typical? Also my bread was not at all successful it completely tore apart at the sides. My red wheat bread does not do this. Do I need to be doing something different? I use a 20 + yr old bosch universal mixer for making my bread. Thanks

Hi Karen,

It sounds like your mill isn’t grinding it as fine as it needs to. As far as the bread, perhaps you should try adding some vital wheat gluten? That would help with the loaf staying together. Please give us a call at 800-349-2173 to speak with one of our baking experts.

Marie says:

I’ve been learning about sourdough starters. Which wheat would produce a better starter. I’ve been told that rye is best but I hate the flavor

Unbleached white flour actually makes the best sourdough starter, according to our in house chef. If you want a whole grain starter, use half whole wheat and half white flour for optimal results.

Marie says:

Which whole wheat red or white?

Either would work well, as long as it’s a hard wheat- so our regular whole wheat flour or our hard white whole wheat flour.

Lillian says:

Is the hard red to our tolerated better by those who are gluten intolerant?

Lillian says:

Is the hard red to our tolerated better by those who have gluten allergies?

I would not recommend either for people with gluten allergies. They should not consume any kind of wheat, rye or barley.

Jennifer says:

Is there a nutritional difference between hard white wheat and hard red wheat? It seems like hard white wheat might be less nutritious.

There is no significant difference between hard red and hard white wheat- they are slightly different in color and flavor, but the nutritional profile is nearly identical. The major differences happen between hard and soft wheat. Soft wheat has a lower protein content.

Vic says:

Hi, may I ask if I want to grow Wheat grass, is there any different between these TWO kinds of wheat seeds?

There might be minor nutritional differences, but they should be nearly identical.

Cc says:

I read somewhere that to make an all-purpose flour similar to any typical flour you can buy at the grocery store, you should grind and mix 50% hard wheat and 50% soft wheat. Is this an accurate way to make an all-purpose to use in any recipe that calls for it?


Yes, this is exactly how all purpose flour is made. It’s a combination of hard wheat and soft wheat, however it also has the bran and germ removed. What you’d be making when you mill these at home is more like an all purpose whole wheat flour. It will still work great in most recipes, but your baked goods will be more dense than if you use white flour. They’ll also be healthier and have a richer flavor, though, so it’s kind of a trade-off.

You showed a basic bread recipe above that you use in a bread machine. Do you have one for someone that doesn’t use a bread machine. My bread typically turns out more like a door stop than a loaf of bread. The best I can guess is my flour to water ratio is out of whack. i.e. too much flour. Any help would be appreciated.


Try one of these, they’re amazing loaves of bread that should get you headed in the right direction:

Patti O"Dea says:

Are winter wheatberries the same as hard wheatberries


The terms “winter” and “hard” refer to different things. Most of what you will find on the market are going to be hard berries. If you’re just cooking the berries to put in, say, a salad, hard or soft won’t matter. If you’re milling them into flour, hard will have a higher protein, while soft will have a lower protein. The term “winter” simply refers to the season in which the wheat was harvested and will not affect your recipe one way or another.

Autumn says:

Is hard red spring wheat low in gluten like spelt and rye?

No, not at all. Hard Red Wheat has a high gluten content.

Sats says:

So for baking muffins,cakes,cookies could I use a combination of whole wheat and white wheat flour? What would you recommend so that I can get the health benefits of whole wheat flour?

We usually recommend a ratio of 1/2 and 1/2 of each flour for a good texture. Sometimes you can get away with all whole wheat, depending on the type of cookie. For instance, I have had a lot of success using 100% whole wheat pastry flour for chocolate chip cookies, but I wouldn’t recommend it for sugar cookies.

Joe says:

Does this hard red wheat contain gliadin? I have found that I can eat gluten but can not stand the gliadin that’s in the new wheat – although, from what I understand that is a dwarf wheat.
Gliadin is a new protein that came with this new wheat and ever since it’s been hidden in the food chain it’s been wreaking havoc with people’s health. The author of Wheat Belly has called it the Perfect Chronic Poison.
So, I’m trying to find a wheat that doesn’t have it. I really don’t know what exactly you mean by a Hard Red Wheat so that’s I ask. I’ve heard of soft red and hard winter but I can’t recall a hard red that I remember as I was growing up.


I would not recommend eating our red wheat if you are concerned about this.

Jayma says:

Joe, you’d probably want an “ancient” wheat, like Rarro, Einkorn, Freekeh… they are the original forms of wheat that do contain gluten, but lower levels and contain a different type of gluten than the “new” form. I am gluten intolerant but haven’t been brave enough to try these, however this is information I’ve read. Try looking up ancient wheat.

Jayma says:


Carol says:

I won’t be doing any baking. I got the soft white wheat berries.
I’ll be cooking it on the stove. I alternate grains with my meals,
a couple days of brown rice, a couple days of quinoa, a couple
days of barley, etc., and now I have wheatberries. This goes with
beans and vegetables. So are soft white wheatberries good for
cooking with a meal like those other grains ?

Absolutely! They’re delicious as a grain in meals. They’ll take a little longer to cook, but wheat berries are a wonderful ingredient for cooking.

Terry Hall says:

I have just recently discovered your artisan bread flour and I have to say I love it! I was wondering if you could tell me what kind of wheat, and whether it’s winter or spring wheat. Any other info you can give me On the flour will be greatly appreciated as my friends and family are always asking about the types of flour and their properties in my baked goods.

Our bread flour is made from hard red wheat and has a protein count between 12.5% and 15%. I hope this helps.

Anita says:

I am new to milling my own flour. I love baking pies, muffins, and cookies. I also, want to make bread for my little ones to each peanut butter and jelly.
What berries do I buy?

Either of these types of wheat would be fantastic for baking. If you’re baking bread, you want to be sure to mill a high-protein hard wheat- that can be hard red or hard white. To make pastries, you’ll benefit from choosing a soft wheat- soft white wheat is most common, as it has a lower protein content.

Terry Armstrong says:

We Mill our own organic hard R/W winter wheat. We recently bought organic hard spring wheat from a local farmer. Found that extra gluten is needed to use it in the same recipe that I use with the hard winter wheat. Which brings me to my question. Bob’s Red Mill produces a product called 100% whole grain Ivory wheat. This product bills itself as a bread flour, pancake flour, cookie flour, etcetera. If ivory wheat organic flour is a good pastry flour how does it have enough gluten to make the kind of bread hard red winter wheat does?


Our Ivory Wheat Flour has a high protein content, it makes a great cookie and pancake, but they will be the same texture as those made with standard whole wheat flour. They’ll have a lighter flavor and color, but if you want a light and fluffy pancake, your best bet would really be to use pastry flour. It is really best for bread baking.

Dan says:

Curious if there is a big difference between the organic and non organic wheat berries? I know a lot of time the only difference is a farm paying for certification even if it’s the same process. Any insight on this? Do the non organic use pesticides?

The organic wheat berries would be grown in accordance with the National Organic Program, while conventional berries would use standard farming practices. It is safe to assume that they would use pesticides on conventionally grown wheat.

JoAnn says:

Will I be able to make a loaf of no-knead bread with self milled hard white wheat berries? What differences will I see between a loaf made with self milled or store bought bread flour?

Yes, that would work just fine. I’m not totally sure what difference you will see, as I have not had much experience with milling my own flour.

Glenn Powers says:

Wondering which to grind to mimic “00” flour for pizza. My mill cangrind very fine to get the 00 quality, but which berry or blend of berries would I grind for.protein and gluten?

You would need to ask the maker of your grinder since they all work differently, we wouldn’t be able to answer this accurately.

Susa says:

I want to make manna bread, can you tell me what wheat is better to sprout, the red or the white

This is hard to answer without seeing the recipe. We would suggest you call our customer service department and speak to our recipe specialist. The number is 503-654-3215.

View Comments

Add Your Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Latest Posts

Keep up to date on the latest from
Bob's Red Mill
Subscribe Now